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02 Nov 2017

Shell Opens 430 Million-Litre Lubricants Plant In Singapore

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"Shell today opened an integrated lubricants and grease production facility in Tuas, Singapore. At 10 hectares, the site size is equivalent to almost 25 football pitches. It is Shell’s 3rd largest lubricants plant in the world and 2nd largest in Asia-Pacific, capable of producing up to 430 million litres (equivalent to 390 kilotonnes) of lubricants and greases every year - enough to change the engine oil of over 12,000 cars, every hour, every day. Speaking at the opening, Huibert Vigeveno, Shell Global Commercial, Executive Vice President (including Shell Lubricants) said: ""This state-of-the-art, highly automated facility in Singapore was built to support our business ambitions here in the APAC region. It serves as a strategic production hub, and will be the centrepiece of our lubricants supply chain network to reliably supply our world-class lubricants to millions of customers in the region. Asia represents over 40% of the world’s lubricants demand, and is home to half of the world’s largest lubricants markets. ""This facility will also further strengthen our marine lubricant business’s presence here in Singapore, the world’s second busiest port."" Lim Kok Kiang, Assistant Managing Director of the Singapore Economic Development Board, commented, ""We are heartened by Shell’s commitment to improving productivity through the adoption of innovative technologies, which is aligned with the strategies of the Energy & Chemicals Industry Transformation Map. With a 50% increase in capacity and six-fold improvement in productivity over its previous plant, the new plant will be yet another great showcase of an Advanced Manufacturing facility that provides Singaporeans with good jobs."" The new plant will be a production hub for products that will be shipped to more than 40 countries, mainly in the Asia-Pacific region. It will produce lubricants carrying Shell’s globally renowned brands, such as Shell Helix (passenger car motor oil), Shell Rimula (heavy duty engine oil), Shell Tellus (hydraulic oil), Shell Alexia (two-stroke marine engine oil) and Shell Gadus (greases)."

01 Nov 2017

"Government of PNG under fire to review ICTSI port contracts"

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"This week the Government of Papua New Guinea has been the target of global protests calling on the government to review the decision to award port operations in Lae and Port Moresby to Philippine port operator, International Container Terminal Services Inc. (ICTSI). The campaign has seen protests outside of the PNG Consulate in Sydney, Australia, and High Commission in Wellington, New Zealand. Paddy Crumlin, President of the International Transport Workers’ Federation today urged the Government of PNG to act in the best interests of its people by standing with workers, landowners and communities exposed to ICTSI’s poor record on safety and labour relations. “The ITF, alongside the Maritime International Federation, is calling on the Minister of Transport, Hon. Wesley Nukundj, to intervene and urgently convene a meeting of stakeholders – including union and landowner representatives – to find a solution to the current crisis,” Crumlin said. Over the past month, embattled global port operator ICTSI has been the target of international condemnation over emerging patterns of labour violations their network, poor safety standards, and insufficient managerial oversight to ensure productive industrial relations, and compliance with local laws and international labour conventions. “The decision to award contracts at PNG’s two biggest ports to ICTSI will have a profound impact. The Papua New Guinea Maritime and Transport Workers Union, an affiliate of the ITF, says that more than 1,000 jobs will be lost at the ports and in associated industries due to the contracts awarded to ICTSI. “The number of family and community members who rely on those jobs numbers is in the thousands. We believe ICTSI intends to replace workers with a mixture of casual, outsourced labour and Filipino workers under the guise of mentors. This is nothing short of a disgrace.” Joe Fleetwood, General Secretary of the Maritime Union of New Zealand, also called on the Government of PNG to act: “The PNG government must put its workers’ interests first, and protect the jobs of its people. We stand ready to continue our support for the PNG workers and landowners in their just fight.” There are significant concerns about how the entry of ICTSI into the PNG port sector will impact on landowner groups, the county’s domestic coastal shipping network and local communities. The 25-year contract will see landowners lose their shareholding, without any compensation. “Both the Government of PNG and ICTSI need to answer some serious, unanswered questions. The recognition of landowners’ cultural and historic connection with their land, compensation for their investment in the ports, and their ongoing participation in the port operations remain a mystery. And the impact of ICTSI’s entry on the viability of PNG’s domestic coastal shipping network and implications that ICTSI’s predatory pricing structures will have on the costs of goods in the country need to be addressed,” added Crumlin. The protests were organised by the ITF and MIF, and affiliates the Maritime Union of Australia (MUA) and the Maritime Union of New Zealand (MUNZ)."

31 Oct 2017

Liberia’s electronic oil record book scoops up two more innovation awards

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"The innovative electronic oil record book (e-ORB) produced by LISCR, the US-based manager of the Liberian Registry, in co-operation with Cyprus-based maritime technology company, Prevention at Sea, has received two more prestigious industry awards. At the Lloyd’s List Asia Pacific Awards ceremony in Singapore on 26 October, the e-ORB won the Lloyd’s List Intelligence Innovation Award, organized in association with Lloyd’s List Intelligence. This award seeks to set a benchmark for excellence while rewarding boundary-challenging innovative ideas and concepts. Meanwhile, the e-ORB secured the Innovation Marine Environment Protection Award from the North American Marine Environment Protection Association (NAMEPA) at its 10th Anniversary celebrations in New York, which also took place on October 26. NAMEPA’s mission is to preserve the marine environment by promoting sustainable marine industry best practice. Earlier this year, the e-ORB won the 2017 Lloyd’s List North America Maritime Services Award. The e-ORB is a Lloyd’s Register-certified maritime software application designed to replace the traditional paper oil record book and to establish software transparency, credibility and traceability. Following highly productive and encouraging meetings with leading international shipping organisations, including the IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee, US Coast Guard, AMSA, Paris MoU, EMSA, Intertanko, Intercargo, OCIMF and numerous port and flag states, the Liberian Registry is pushing ahead with moves to expedite the smooth introduction of e-ORB throughout the fleet registered under its flag. LISCR CEO Scott Bergeron says, “Daily paper record-keeping is a heavy administrative burden that leads to an inefficient use of time for engineers. Liberia is well ahead of the game in producing user-friendly technology that curtails man-hours, reduces overtime costs and eliminates vague entries and mistakes. We are grateful that our innovative leadership has been recognised by these three leading industry awards.” Photo caption: Pictured from left to right: Mark Laudi, host of the 2017 Lloyd’s List Asia Pacific Awards, Scott Bergeron, CEO, Liberian Registry, and Liz McCarthy, Publisher, Lloyd’s List Intelligence. l The Liberian Registry is the world’s most technologically advanced maritime administration. It has a long-established track record of combining the highest standards of safety for vessels and crews with the highest levels of responsive and innovative service to owners. Moreover, it has a well-deserved reputation for supporting international legislation designed to maintain and improve the safety and effectiveness of the shipping industry and protection of the marine environment."

31 Oct 2017

Liberia’s electronic oil record book scoops up two more innovation awards

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"The innovative electronic oil record book (e-ORB) produced by LISCR, the US-based manager of the Liberian Registry, in co-operation with Cyprus-based maritime technology company, Prevention at Sea, has received two more prestigious industry awards. At the Lloyd’s List Asia Pacific Awards ceremony in Singapore on 26 October, the e-ORB won the Lloyd’s List Intelligence Innovation Award, organized in association with Lloyd’s List Intelligence. This award seeks to set a benchmark for excellence while rewarding boundary-challenging innovative ideas and concepts. Meanwhile, the e-ORB secured the Innovation Marine Environment Protection Award from the North American Marine Environment Protection Association (NAMEPA) at its 10th Anniversary celebrations in New York, which also took place on October 26. NAMEPA’s mission is to preserve the marine environment by promoting sustainable marine industry best practice. Earlier this year, the e-ORB won the 2017 Lloyd’s List North America Maritime Services Award. The e-ORB is a Lloyd’s Register-certified maritime software application designed to replace the traditional paper oil record book and to establish software transparency, credibility and traceability. Following highly productive and encouraging meetings with leading international shipping organisations, including the IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee, US Coast Guard, AMSA, Paris MoU, EMSA, Intertanko, Intercargo, OCIMF and numerous port and flag states, the Liberian Registry is pushing ahead with moves to expedite the smooth introduction of e-ORB throughout the fleet registered under its flag. LISCR CEO Scott Bergeron says, “Daily paper record-keeping is a heavy administrative burden that leads to an inefficient use of time for engineers. Liberia is well ahead of the game in producing user-friendly technology that curtails man-hours, reduces overtime costs and eliminates vague entries and mistakes. We are grateful that our innovative leadership has been recognised by these three leading industry awards.” Photo caption: Pictured from left to right: Mark Laudi, host of the 2017 Lloyd’s List Asia Pacific Awards, Scott Bergeron, CEO, Liberian Registry, and Liz McCarthy, Publisher, Lloyd’s List Intelligence. l The Liberian Registry is the world’s most technologically advanced maritime administration. It has a long-established track record of combining the highest standards of safety for vessels and crews with the highest levels of responsive and innovative service to owners. Moreover, it has a well-deserved reputation for supporting international legislation designed to maintain and improve the safety and effectiveness of the shipping industry and protection of the marine environment."

31 Oct 2017

Probe into MV Emerald Star sinking (16 Indian Seafarers Rescued and 10 missing)

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"--> As nickel ore cargoes liquefy, they destabilise the ship because of the free surface effect of water moving within the cargo holds. A bulker that sank off the Philippines in a suspected case of nickel ore liquefaction last week had loaded a cargo sourced from an opencast mine on the Indonesian island of Halmahera. The extraction process at the mine is known to leave nickel ore exposed to the elements and liable to take on water. Its ore is of varying consistency including rocks that do not take on water and also fine particles that are prone to liquefaction. Sources say cargoes from the mine are often loaded directly onto ships at the Tanjung Buli terminal without processing and they have previously been known to have a moisture content as high as 35%. Indonesia is in its rainy season which runs from October to April. The ship’s operator, Dubai’s Stellar Ocean Transport, confirms the 57,300-dwt Emerald Star (built 2010) was carrying nickel ore loaded at Tanjung to China when it sank. “Owners are in the midst of investigating the circumstances of the loss with the flag state,” the company said, adding that its prayers are with the families of the missing. The North of England protection-and-indemnity club, which insured the vessel, is also investigating the loss. But at this stage, the insurer declines to comment on whether it believes it was caused by cargo liquefaction. The search for survivors continues. The North of England has been one of the more proactive insurers in alerting the industry to the potential of nickel ore cargoes to liquefy and has issued an updated loss prevention alert on the topic. Shipowners and charterers are obliged under the terms of their insurance cover to notify P&I clubs if they are to load nickel ore, to ensure that the correct testing procedures are in place. If liquefaction is determined as the cause of the loss, then questions will be raised over whether the transportable moisture limit test was correctly carried out. The Hong Kong flag, under which the ship was registered, is also looking into the loss, and its questioning of the 16 rescued crew is likely to be critical to determining the cause. While the investigation goes on, the Hong Kong Marine Department has sent a warning to owners of the dangers of liquefaction and the importance of testing the cargo in line with the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes code. Senior surveyor KF Kwan said: “Nickel ore is regarded as a very dangerous cargo due to its liquefaction. Shipping nickel ore from Indonesia to China is known to be particularly risky. P&I clubs around the world have issued circulars and notices to alert the industry, as nickel ore liquefaction has resulted in the sinking of many vessels in recent years.” A total of 81 seafarers lost their lives in six separate casualties between 2010 and 2013 that were caused by the liquefaction of Indonesian nickel ore exports to China. Insurers have been concerned over the possible reoccurrence of liquefaction cases following the resumption of nickel ore exports from Indonesia this year after a three-year ban. Permits for about six million tonnes of nickel ore exports from Indonesia have been granted this year. Indonesian shippers and terminals had been known for lax testing procedures and, although industry associations lobbied for improvements, that initiative lay dormant during the export ban. They suggest many cases are going unreported because they are discovered before they result in casualty or loss.Sources at technical services companies advising P&I insurers tell TradeWinds that despite awareness campaigns, liquefaction has been a consistent problem for the dry bulk industry over recent years. The Emerald Star is classed by DNV GL. The ship recently had some issues with port state control, with three deficiencies identified at an inspection at Zhanjiang, China, in July this year. An inspection at Paradip, India, in December 2016 found five faults. None of the deficiencies were severe enough to warrant detention of the vessel."

04 Oct 2017

The Geopolitics of the Kra Canal

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"The Kra or Thai Canal is a proposed manmade waterway across the Kra Isthmus on the Malay Peninsula in southern Thailand. The canal would connect the South China Sea with the Andaman Sea, providing a link between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. It would be located about 500 miles south of Bangkok and 120 miles north of Thailand’s border with Malaysia. The new route would reduce the distance oil tankers from the Persian Gulf to Asian ports must traverse by around 700 miles. The canal would also eliminate the need to transit the increasingly crowded, piracy-prone and dangerous Malacca Strait, as well as the adjacent Sunda Strait between Sumatra and Java or the Lombok Strait between Bali and Lombok. With proposed funding from China, its construction would have far-ranging implications for the strategic landscape of Southeast Asia and especially for important American allies such as India, Sri Lanka and the city state of Singapore. The Kra Isthmus runs approximately 700 miles and ranges in width from 26.5 miles at its narrowest to about 200 hundred miles at its widest. Overland trade routes across the isthmus connecting Southeast Asia and India have existed for centuries. The isthmus lies at the juncture of the Indian Ocean monsoon system and the trade winds of the South China Sea. Origins of the Canal The idea of a canal across the Kra Isthmus goes back to the 17th century. In 1677, upon hearing of the construction of the Canal du Midi connecting -- via the Garonne River, the Atlantic and Mediterranean -- King Ramathibodi III of Siam asked Louis XIV to send a French engineer to examine the possibility of building a canal to connect Songkhla and Marid (Myanmar) The engineer, known only by his surname de Lamar, surveyed several possible routes, but the idea was abandoned as being impractical. The idea resurfaced again in 1793, when the brother of King Rama I proposed a canal to make it easier to send naval vessels to protect Siam's west coast from pirates. Chinese Interest In 2005, or thereabouts, the Chinese government floated its interest in underwriting the cost of a Kra canal. The proposal was one of several major infrastructure projects that China offered to finance and that would eventually, in 2013, be folded in Xi Jinping's One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative. The Chinese proposal envisioned a 10-year construction project manned by approximately 30,000 Chinese workers at a cost of $20 billion to $25 billion. In 2007, it was announced that the proposal had been tentatively approved by the Thai government pending more extensive feasibility studies. However, no further progress was made. In March 2014, the China Daily Mail disclosed that LiuGong Machinery Co. Ltd., a huge state-owned engineering and manufacturing group; XCMG; and privately owned Sandy Heavy Industry Co. Ltd. had agreed to take the lead in organizing the construction of a Kra canal. In 2015, an organization called the Asia Union Group, is headed by former Thai Premier Chavalit Yongchaiyudh, signed a memorandum of understanding with the China-Thailand KRA Infrastructure Investment and Development Company of Guangzhou, China, to conduct a feasibility study of the proposed canal. The project has also been publicly supported by the Thai-Chinese Cultural and Economic Association, headed by former Thai Deputy Prime Minister Bhokin Bhalakula. Both the Thai and Chinese governments subsequently denied that any official agreement had been signed between the two countries. Beijing, however, has often used private Chinese companies to front government-funded infrastructure development projects. The Malacca Dilemma Currently, most of the ship traffic between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea and from there to the Pacific traverses the Malacca, Sunda or Lombok straits. Most ships use the Malacca Strait. Compared to the proposed Kra Canal, the Malacca passage adds 720 miles, roughly two to three days; the Sunda passage adds 1,700 miles; and the Lombok passage adds 2,100 miles. The Strait of Malacca is a 620-mile-long waterway between Malaysia and the island of Sumatra. At its narrowest point, the Philip channel, near Singapore, it is just 1.6 miles wide. Its shallowest point in the shipping lane is 82 feet -- just barely enough for a Malaccamax class, Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC), with a draft of 66 feet. Anything with a deeper draft would be dangerous, given prevailing currents, during a low tide. Building the Kra Canal The construction of a Kra canal poses several significant engineering challenges. First, although the Malay Peninsula is only 26.5 miles wide at its narrowest point, (from the Kra River estuary to the Bay of Sawi), it is dominated by a long granite mountainous ridge, the Tenasserim Hills, that runs down the middle of the peninsula. The ridge is more than 1,000 miles in length and varies in height from approximately 4,600 to 250 feet above sea level. Digging through the ridge has been the principal problem that has stymied historic attempts at digging a canal. A system of locks could solve the problem of getting over the ridge. Locks, however, are usually between 10 and 20 times more expensive to build per running foot than normal excavation. Land Bridge One alternative is to use the Kra Isthmus as a land bridge between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A road construction project was started in 1993 to provide a transportation corridor across the isthmus. The opposing lanes of the highway are about 500 feet apart to accommodate pipelines and a railroad to shift container traffic. Oil refineries and storage depots were also proposed to be built at either end of the corridor. The highway has never been finished, however, and the railroad, refineries and pipelines were never built. A project of this magnitude would be expected to add from one to two percent to Thailand's GNP. Most of the labor force, however, will come from China. It's not clear what supplies will be sourced locally, however, or how much of the economic activity generated will directly benefit Thailand. The Geopolitics of the Kra Canal The construction of the Kra Canal would significantly upend the geopolitics of the region, in the process producing significant winners and losers. The two most significant losers would be Singapore and the United States. Singapore owes its importance to the fact that it is adjacent to the narrowest portion of the Malacca Strait and hence, from a naval standpoint, the easiest point to defend and from which to interdict seaborne traffic. It also lies about halfway between Bengal and Hong Kong. During the first half of the 19th century, it was a convenient stopping point for British ships bringing opium from Bengal's poppy fields to Hong Kong. Approximately 30% of the shipping traffic through the Malacca Strait subsequently stops in one of four Malaysian ports on the South China Sea: Klang, Penang, Johor and Tanjung Pelepas. Another 50% to 60% stops in Singapore, while the balance sails on through. It has been suggested that Singapore could lose between 30% and 50% of its shipping traffic because of the Kra Canal. This is completely speculative. Singapore has also developed a sophisticated support network for its shipping industry, ranging from legal and financial services to warehousing and ship repair. It would be a while until port facilities adjacent to the Kra Canal could offer the range and sophistication of services that Singapore offers. On the other hand, it is inevitable that the Kra Canal would have a negative impact on Singapore's shipping business. The United States currently conducts anti-piracy patrols in the region, and in the Malacca Strait in particular. Washington has a close working relationship with Singapore and the U.S. Navy has access to port and ship repair facilities there. The U.S. also operates P-8 Poseidon long-range reconnaissance aircraft from Singapore. The P-8s are equipped with Airborne Ground Surveillance capabilities and can play a varied role in anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare as well as reconnaissance and maritime patrol. That puts the U.S. in a strong position should it ever need to interdict maritime traffic through the Malacca, Sunda and Lombok straits. The Kra Canal would create an alternative shipping route to the Malacca Strait, a route where the ability of the U.S. Navy to project power would be less. Moreover, a Chinese-built canal would presumably be subject to a considerable amount of influence from Beijing, potentially creating a situation where China might have an advantage over the U.S. in shifting naval forces between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Thailand would be a significant beneficiary. The construction of such a massive project would revitalize the Thai economy after a multi-year slump from which it is only now recovering. The canal could be a significant moneymaker for Bangkok. Since it does not offer the shipping efficiencies presented by either the Suez or Panama canals, however, it is unlikely to ever be as profitable as those canals. A big winner of the Kra Canal would be Sri Lanka. The island sits astride the sea lanes of the northern Indian Ocean opposite the Kra Canal, making it a logical choice as a new shipping and logistics hub. Over the last decade, China has invested heavily in building up the island's shipping infrastructure. Beijing has financed a new port at Hambantota, which a Chinese company now runs. Beijing is also financing the construction of Colombo Port City and its accompanying new business district. On the other hand, a canal would enhance India's ""Look East"" policy and its goal of greater engagement with Southeast Asia. It would also enhance the rapidly developing Indo-Vietnamese alliance in the South China Sea. In order to enhance its own strategic position, India has begun the Sethusamudram Project of deepening and widening the sea lane between its coast and Sri Lanka. The goal is to create a route that would funnel maritime traffic through Indian waters. In addition, ships destined for the Kra Canal would have to pass through the channel between India's Andaman and Nicobar island chains. Combined with the Sethusamudram bypass, this would enhance India's ability to project naval power in the region and would also make India's strategic geography in the area that much more valuable. Both Cambodia and Myanmar would benefit from access to the Kra Canal, as it would enhance Myanmar's access to the South China Sea and to the Pacific, while enhancing Cambodia's access to the Indian Ocean. Both countries currently must traverse the Malacca Strait, a detour that adds some 1,500 miles to their ship traffic. For China, the Kra Canal offers a multitude of advantages. It would be a significant element in the ""String of Pearls"" maritime strategy that is a key component of the One Belt One Road initiative."

23 Sep 2017

DeckWatch App by Vesper Marine wins industry award

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"New Zealand's Vesper Marine is honored with innovation award for it's deckWatch app in Florida, USA Vesper Marine deckWatch app for smartwatch wrist watches has been awarded the National Marine Manufacturers Association (NMMA) Innovation Award in the Safety Equipment category at the 2017 International BoatBuilders’ Exhibition & Conference (IBEX), held in Tampa, Florida last week. The app enables a smartwatch to display navigation and safety information, as well as critical alert information directly from Vesper Marine smartAIS® transponders – without the need for a phone or tablet to relay the information. DeckWatch gives boaters quick, at-a-glance situational awareness and immediate visibility of critical situations directly on their wrist from anywhere on the boat. The Innovation Awards program, organized by the NMMA and judged by Boating Writers International (BWI), recognizes exceptionally innovative new consumer marine products. - Vesper Marine deckWatch app for smartwatch wrist watches has been awarded the National Marine Manufacturers Association (NMMA) Innovation Award in the Safety Equipment category at the 2017 International BoatBuilders’ Exhibition & Conference (IBEX), held in Tampa, Florida last week. - The app enables a smartwatch to display navigation and safety information, as well as critical alert information directly from Vesper Marine smartAIS® transponders – without the need for a phone or tablet to relay the information. - deckWatch gives boaters quick, at-a-glance situational awareness and immediate visibility of critical situations directly on their wrist from anywhere on the boat. - The Innovation Awards program, organized by the NMMA and judged by Boating Writers International (BWI), recognizes exceptionally innovative new consumer marine products. Auckland, New Zealand – Vesper Marine, a leading manufacturer of innovative marine safety products, announced today the Vesper Marine deckWatch® smartwatch app has been awarded the National Marine Manufacturers Association (NMMA) Innovation Award in the Safety Equipment category at the 2017 International BoatBuilders’ Exhibition & Conference (IBEX). The new app displays navigation and safety information, as well as critical alert information on a smartwatch directly from Vesper Marine smartAIS® transponders – without the need for a phone or tablet to relay the information. If a collision alarm is triggered, users can see the bearing and distance of a vessel that is a collision risk, allowing them to immediately change course or contact the other vessel. With Anchor Watch, users simply tap their smartwatch to mark the precise location when the anchor is dropped, as well as monitor if the anchor is dragging. If the anchor drags, an alarm sounds on the smartAIS transponder and users can see bearing and range of the boat from the anchor on their smartwatch to take necessary action. In man overboard situations, Vesper Marine smartAIS offers users a unique and potentially lifesaving feature. The powerful and versatile system works seamlessly with any brand of AIS man overboard device and if a MOB situation is encountered, it triggers a dedicated audible alarm directly on the smartAIS transponder. The user can view on their smartwatch continuously updated bearing and range to the person in the water for quick retrieval. In addition, NMEA 2000 and NMEA 0183 information such as depth, wind, speed, heading, SOG, COG and more are available for at-a-glance accessibility. The deckWatch app is a free companion to all Vesper Marine smartAIS transponders and is available now for Android Wear 2 smartwatches. “When it comes to safety at sea, every second counts,” said Jeff Robbins, CEO, Vesper Marine. “We designed deckWatch to give boaters quick, at-a-glance situational awareness and immediate visibility of critical situations directly on their smartwatch from anywhere on the boat. We hope that our smartAIS technology helps boaters enjoy their time on the water more and sleep just a little better at night. We are honored to be recognized by this distinguished panel of industry experts by receiving this accolade.” The Innovation Awards program, organized by the NMMA and judged by Boating Writers International (BWI), recognizes exceptionally innovative new consumer marine products that best meet the criteria of “Having innovative distinction from other products currently manufactured in the marine industry; providing benefit to the marine industry and/or consumer; providing practicality of use; and are cost-effective.”"

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